Back

Multi-Year Plan to Strengthen IDF Conventional Capabilities

by JINSA Research Associate Allison Krant.


by JINSA Research Associate Allison Krant.

The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) has reprioritized its acquisition schedule for years to come as a consequence of lessons learned from the summer 2006 battles with Hezbollah. Prior to the conflict, Israel’s defense spending had been focused on communications, systems integration, and network-centric battle systems at the expense of ground combat training and readiness. The new plan will have the IDF concentrate on bolstering manpower over technology in an effort to protect Israel from the wide range of security threats beyond the war against Palestinian terrorists.

On September 3, IDF Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi announced the new five-year multi-dimensional military procurement plan, “Tefen 2012.” Under the new $60 billion plan, previous efforts to draw down the size of the Israeli military will effectively be reversed, with the first priority given to building the Ground Forces Command and concomitant increases in equipment purchases and troop readiness and training. “Our people are the source of IDF might,” Deputy Chief of Staff Maj. Gen. Moshe Kaplinsky told reporters during an early September briefing on the new budget, according to Defense News, September 10.

Tefen 2012 is awaiting approval by Israel’s political leadership, and implementation is scheduled to begin early next year.

The Tefen plan includes provisions to upgrade military ground vehicles and tanks with Israeli-developed active protection systems. Accordingly, the IDF will procure large numbers of locally produced Merkava Mark IV main battle tanks each year. Production of this latest generation of Israeli-produced tank had been in limbo for some time due to funding shortfalls.

In addition, the IDF will acquire hundreds of new Namer heavy-tracked armored personnel carriers, based on the Merkava chassis. Anti-rocket vehicle defense systems, most likely Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.’s Trophy active defense system, will be installed on the newest tanks as well as an indeterminate number of older Mark III and Mark II Merkavas, according to Defense Industry Daily, September 5.

The tremendous acquisition schedule is recognition by the IDF that Israel must be prepared for a broader range of threats in the future than it planned for over the past decade. New threats include “global terrorism, the northern border, the Iranians or the new arms supplies of Syria,” a senior IDF officer told Ha’aretz on September 9. Priority is no longer given to “the confrontation with the Palestinians,” he said.

“This plan took into consideration all of the current threats Israel faces into consideration,” a high-ranking IDF officer told The Jerusalem Post on September 3. “This plan will hopefully prepare the IDF for dealing with those future challenges.”

Kaplinsky summarized IDF priorities under the new plan as a “significant strengthening of ground forces, strengthening the long arm of the…Air and Space Forces branch, and improving our relative qualitative edge at sea and out control of coastal waters.”

Under the pre-war procurement plan, the IDF/Air Force expected to receive 100 fifth-generation stealthy Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II strike fighters to replace a number of ageing U.S.-built F-16 Fighting Falcons. Now, it seems, they might not even purchase half of that amount. “They’re now talking about one squadron of 25 planes…and if we’re lucky we may get another squadron of 25 in the next five-year plan,” an airpower lobbyist told Defense News, September 10.

Reportedly, the IDF/Air Force will continue with a planned investment in a new fleet of transport aircraft. Under consideration are an unknown number of the latest J-model of Lockheed Martin’s venerable C-130 Hercules transport plane. Also, plans to upgrade the service’s unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) fleet will remain in force.

The IDF/Navy is still hoping to acquire two new multi-purpose ships, equipped with missile defense and land attack capabilities. The Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) developed by Lockheed Martin and three other U.S. firms had been under consideration but the scandal-plagued ship may be fatally delayed in reaching Israel. It was expected that any Israeli-purchased LCS would be equipped with Rafael’s Barak ship-borne anti-missile defense system.

The IDF/Navy expects to acquire two additional German-built Dolphin-class submarines, possibly equipped with air independent propulsion systems. Israel acquired three diesel electric models from Germany delivered in 1998 and 1999. The submarines, custom-equipped to Israeli specifications and manufactured by the Kiel-based Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG (HDW), are considered to be the most advanced non-nuclear submarines in the world.

In addition, the IDF/Navy is set to procure the first of seven fast patrol vessels originally contracted in January 2006 under a combined U.S. FMS and locally funded Ministry of Defense program, Defense News reported, November 5. Four Israel Aerospace Industries Super Dvora Mk-IIIs and three Israel Shipyards Shaldag boats will be acquired featuring a German-Swedish jet propulsion system offering the ability to operate in shallow waters close to shore. The boats will be used primarily to boost the IDF/Navy’s coastal capabilities. Over half of the funding for the building of these ships will come from U.S. military aid. All seven ships are expected to arrive in IDF/Navy bases by January 2008.

IDF to Expand C4I Capabilities

The IDF is expected to increase spending on command, control, communications, computer, and information (C4I) technologies. In addition to increased funding, the IDF General Staff’s C4I Directorate will also receive an expansion in its mission responsibility and will receive additional technical and support staff.

This organizational restructuring was another hard-learned lesson from the Lebanon War. An IDF general officer told Defense News in a mid-September interview that the war caught the IDF “at an uncomfortable intersection” with regard to C4I capabilities, which forced many soldiers to improvise while on the move.

Communications security, a weakness thought to have been exploited by Hezbollah (with assistance from either Syria or Iran) will be addressed by a single secure network. The IDF plans to extend its fiber-optic high-speed broadband network, known as “Gold Avnet,” to mobile ground, air and naval ranks by 2012. The plan is to use wide-area wireless point-to-point and point-to-multipoint (WiMAX) technology “to fuse information into a network that allows the soldier to share information with a tank or an aircraft,” Maj. Gen. Ami Shafran, head of the General Staff’s C4I, told Defense News on October 1. The IDF, defense sources say, should be the first military in the world to use WiMAX wireless technology by 2008.

IDF/Air Force to Acquire Replacement Arms in U.S. Deal

Regardless of budget cuts, the IDF/Air Force is expected to sign a huge arms deal with the Pentagon independent of the Tefen plan, according to Defense News, October 1. IAF munitions had reportedly reached dangerously low levels even before the 2006 battles with Hezbollah. In response to Israeli requests, the U.S. Department of Defense has put together a series of four Foreign Military Sales (FMS) arms packages, estimated at $1.2 billion to replace missiles, munitions, bomb kits, support gear expended over recent years, including hundreds of millions of gallons of fuel. Included in the package are Paveway laser-guided bombs, BLU-109 hardened penetration bombs, Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) kits and GBU-28 bunker busting bombs.

The FMS arms packages are a response to Israeli requests to the Pentagon’s Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) in August to refill bomb stocks that were near depletion in the aftermath of last year’s war, Defense Industry Daily reported, August 7. Various American-made bombs and precision guidance kits, including JDAM tail kits, Paveway II laser-guided kits, GBU-28 Enhanced Paveway III bunker buster laser/GPS guided live bombs, as well as various other live bombs and live fuse components, were part of the requests and are a part of the FMS sales packages, according to Defense Industry Daily, August 7.

Congress approved the packages in late September, but many in the Israeli defense industry are skeptical about spending such large amounts of money on American-made armaments rather than investing in locally developed weaponry, senior executives told Defense News, October 1. Of particular concern is the Defense Ministry’s plan to acquire large numbers of Raytheon AIM-9M Sidewinder air-to-air missiles and the Hughes/Raytheon Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles (AMRAAMs) when the Israeli Python 5, Derby and other locally-developed air-to-air missile systems have come to characterize the best of the Israeli defense industry on the world market.

Some Israeli defense executives fret that Israel has become overly dependent on U.S. military aid. Although a certain portion of the aid that the United States provides to Israel every year is allocated to the development of locally made armaments, the criticism is that the Israeli government is not providing enough funds and relying too much on the acquisition of American-made equipment. “It’s all a matter of priorities. So if funding a next-generation fire control radar or another high-priority project means we need to buy off-the-shelf U.S. missiles to fill our warehouses, that’s the way it has to be,” an Israeli defense official told Defense News.

Indeed, DSCA announced in late August that Israel had requested 20 Boeing RGM-84LBlock II Harpoon anti-ship missiles and 500 Raytheon AIM-9M Sidewinder Short Range Air-to-Air Infrared Guided Missiles, according to Defense Industry Daily, August 24. In addition, Israel requested 90 million gallons of JP-8 aviation jet fuel and 42 million gallons of diesel fuel.

More recently, on October 29, Israel requested another Foreign Military Sale from Congress worth $1.329 billion in missiles and munitions. The DSCA released a report on November 1 detailing additional missile requests, which included 2,000 Radio Frequency TOW 2A Missiles; 1,000 AGM-114K3 Hellfire II Missiles; 200 AGM-114L3 Hellfire II Longbow Missiles; 500 AGM-114M3 Hellfire E II Missiles; and 100 Patriot ballistic missile interceptors of the Guidance Enhanced Missile-Plus model. Cartridges, projectiles, fuses, charges, containers, spare and repair parts, test and tool sets, personnel training and equipment, and other logistical support components were also part of the request, DSCA announced.

IDF Modifies Missile Defense System

As a result of the nearly 4,000 missile and rocket attacks launched on Israel’s northern frontier during last summer’s war, the IDF has redeployed an Arrow ballistic missile defense system in the north. The Arrow first became fully operational in 2000, and was deployed in the Palmahim Air Force Base, near the Israeli coastal town of Ashdod, and at an undisclosed site in northern Israel. “Our assumption is that the next war will be characterized by missile onslaughts, and lots of them,” a top IDF officer told The Jerusalem Post, September 6. A more-advanced model of the Arrow is reportedly under development will serve to intercept missiles at a higher altitude. The Defense Ministry recently submitted a request to the Pentagon to receive information on two American-made missile defense systems, the Terminal High Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) and the Aegis ship-borne ballistic missile defense system.

Juniper Cobra Joint Exercises

From March 10-20, the biennial Juniper Cobra 2007 joint exercise between the U.S. Army European Command and the IDF was held. Nearly 500 soldiers, sailors and airmen from the United States’ European Command took part in the 10-day training exercise geared to joint missile defense tactics against a wide variety of aerial threats including missiles carrying nuclear and chemical weapons.

Publications

ICC Prosecutor Requests Arrest Warrants for Israeli Leaders
Published on May 21, 2024
Biden’s Israel arms embargo will go down as one of the worst American betrayals
Published on May 9, 2024
How a Bureaucratic Change Helped Save Israel
Published on April 28, 2024
Israel Strikes Back; U.S. Must Show ‘No Daylight’
Published on April 19, 2024
Tragic Mistakes are Common During War
Published on April 19, 2024
Iran’s Failed Kill Shot Leaves it Vulnerable
Published on April 18, 2024
Any ‘Win’ Against Iran is Premature Without Shutting Down its Capabilities
Published on April 17, 2024
Unprecedented Iranian Regime Attack Against Israel
Published on April 14, 2024
Syria Strike Sends Clear Message to Iran
Published on April 4, 2024
After Biden’s Afghanistan fiasco, why should Israel take his advice?
Published on April 3, 2024
Conditioning U.S. Aid to Israel Would Be a Mistake
Published on March 27, 2024
The Biden Administration Has an Opportunity to Rein In Iran
Published on March 27, 2024
Egypt Must Do More to Aid Gazans
Published on March 19, 2024
​​Joe Biden’s Plan for a Palestinian State Will Harm America and Israel
Published on March 6, 2024
America Must Give Israel More Time To Defeat Hamas
Published on March 4, 2024
Don’t Fall for Iran’s Empty Nuclear Gesture
Published on February 27, 2024
Iran Accelerates into the Nuclear Gray Zone
Published on January 10, 2024
Deterrence Is More Than Deployments: The Effects, and Limitations, of the Administration&#...
Published on December 14, 2023
Iran on Nuclear Precipice as Oversight Dwindles
Published on December 7, 2023
What Israel Needs
Published on November 24, 2023
Biden’s Iran policy needs to match post-10/7 realities
Published on November 7, 2023
Deterrence Through Strength
Published on November 2, 2023
The Strategic Imperative of U.S. Military Assistance to Israel
Published on October 19, 2023
True Allegiances Emerge
Published on October 16, 2023
After Barbaric Israel Attack, Biden Must Get Tough and Stop Appeasing Iran
Published on October 11, 2023
A Joint American-Israeli Redline on Iran’s Nuclear Program
Published on September 14, 2023
JINSA President & CEO Michael Makovsky Testifies Before Congress on Iran
Published on September 13, 2023
If Israel Strikes Iran Over Its Nuclear Program, the U.S. Must Have Its Back
Published on August 14, 2023
To Counter Iran at Sea, US Must Sell Partners on Doing More
Published on July 12, 2023
Ibn Saud, FDR, and the Future of the Jewish State
Published on May 23, 2023
Israel’s Multifront Escalation
Published on May 12, 2023
U.S. Must Expedite Delivery of KC-46A Aerial Refueling Tanker to Israel
Published on May 2, 2023
Biden Needs a New Iran strategy: A Successful Revolution
Published on February 7, 2023
The Arsenal of Democracy’s Stockpile in Israel
Published on January 25, 2023
Israel is Ready to Strike Iran’s Nuclear Program if Necessary — America Must Prepare t...
Published on January 12, 2023
Saudi Arabia’s OPEC+ decision wasn’t as simple as ‘betrayal’
Published on October 19, 2022
How the US Can Roll Back Iran — Without Going to War
Published on October 1, 2022
Without Alexandroupolis, Transatlantic Security Is Dead in the Water
Published on August 29, 2022
It’s Time to Make Iran Think Twice About Harming U.S. Citizens
Published on August 22, 2022
The Nuclear Deal That Biden Should Be Worrying About
Published on July 20, 2022
The Biden Administration Must Crack Down on Hamas’ Disinformation Campaign
Published on June 8, 2022
Don’t Look Now, but Biden’s Iran Policy Is Still Failing
Published on June 3, 2022
The US Should Embrace its Role as the World’s Armory Against Aggression
Published on May 3, 2022
It’s Time to End the Iran Nuclear Deal Once and For All
Published on April 19, 2022
Why Biden Should Exit the Iran Talks
Published on March 19, 2022
Israel’s Failed US Policy
Published on March 2, 2022
No more extending the clock on the Iran nuclear deal
Published on February 22, 2022
U.S. Needs to Deliver on Its Promise to Fund Israel’s Iron Dome
Published on February 17, 2022
Could Saudi Arabia Help Save Biden’s Flailing Presidency?
Published on February 8, 2022
Why Has Biden Stopped Pushing for Arab-Israeli Peace?
Published on January 19, 2022
To Keep Iran from Going Nuclear — and Prevent War — America Must Work With Israel
Published on December 2, 2021
Iran Negotiations Need Clear End Date for Any Agreement
Published on December 1, 2021
Israel’s Success Must Not Obscure Increase in Hamas Capabilities
Published on November 23, 2021
A Better Path Forward for Handling Iran
Published on November 22, 2021
America should re-envision the Eastern Med as a multi-theater power-projection platform
Published on November 20, 2021
New proof that it was Hamas — not Israel — that committed war crimes last May
Published on November 15, 2021
Don’t Believe Iran’s Claims of Another Nuclear Milestone
Published on November 1, 2021
The Senate is setting a dangerous precedent with Iron Dome funding
Published on October 25, 2021
Memo to Progressives: Israel’s Iron Dome Saves Palestinian Lives, Too
Published on September 27, 2021
Beyond Iran, the US and Israel Must Work Together to Counter China
Published on September 9, 2021
After Afghanistan: Israel Will Bear a Greater Burden for Upholding Stability
Published on August 28, 2021
What Biden Needs To Do To Restore U.S. Credibility After Afghan Fiasco
Published on August 25, 2021
As the U.S. Steps Out of the Middle East, It Must Help Israel Step Up
Published on August 23, 2021
Is Iran Bluffing About Its Enriched Uranium Stockpile?
Published on July 28, 2021
Promoting Lasting Stability in Libya
Published on July 6, 2021
The Iran Deal May Still Be Dead
Published on June 28, 2021
Could Israel Replicate Its Syrian Military Strategy in Gaza?
Published on June 20, 2021
Pledges to Restore Israel’s Defenses Must Go Beyond the Iron Dome
Published on June 8, 2021
Learn From Gaza, Prepare For Hezbollah
Published on May 24, 2021
Conditioning Aid to Israel is Flawed Foreign Policy
Published on April 30, 2021
How Defense Secretary Austin Can Help Israel Help America
Published on April 9, 2021
When it Comes to the Iran Nuclear Deal, What’s a Moderate Democrat to Do?
Published on April 5, 2021
The US Must Not Rejoin the Iran Nuclear Deal
Published on March 21, 2021
Don’t Cut or Condition US Military Aid to Israel
Published on March 19, 2021
Israel, US Must Confront China Threat
Published on March 16, 2021
Biden and Congress Must Act Against Calls To Condition Aid To Israel
Published on March 3, 2021
Days of Blunder: Why U.S. Diplomacy Doesn’t Work in Iran
Published on February 13, 2021
Iran: Still a State-Sponsor of Terrorism, and Growing Bolder
Published on February 6, 2021
How America and Israel Can Limit Dangerous Chinese Economic Influence
Published on February 1, 2021
Shifting Israel to the Area of Responsibility (AOR) for U.S. Forces in the Middle East
Published on January 15, 2021
Negotiations Cannot Solve America’s Iranian Nuclear Troubles
Published on January 11, 2021
What Selling F-35 Stealth Jets to the UAE Means for Israel
Published on December 7, 2020
The Case for a Strategic Pivot to Greece and Cyprus
Published on November 19, 2020
Turkey and Russia’s Endgame in Libya—And Why America Should Not Stand Still
Published on October 30, 2020
How the U.S. Can Help Israel Maintain its Military Edge
Published on October 23, 2020
Now is the Time for Kuwait to Join the Growing Anti-Iran Coalition
Published on October 21, 2020
Selling F-35 Jets to Qatar Poses a Direct Threat to Israel
Published on October 17, 2020
The Road to a War Within NATO
Published on September 19, 2020
F-35s to UAE Necessitates U.S. Ensure Israel’s QME
Published on September 15, 2020
The EU Needs to Fully Designate Hezbollah as a Terrorist Group
Published on August 31, 2020
UAE-Israel Peace Presents Turkey With A Clarifying Moment
Published on August 20, 2020
International Community Must Act to Protect Lebanon
Published on August 17, 2020
Yes, Iran Could Sink One of the Navy’s Aircraft Carriers
Published on August 15, 2020
Why the US Must Confront Iran, With or Without the UN
Published on August 14, 2020
Addressing Turkish Aggression in the Eastern Mediterranean
Published on August 14, 2020
Israel’s War of Attrition is Potently Relevant Today
Published on August 11, 2020
Israel Needs Help Rebuilding Its Munitions Stockpile
Published on August 6, 2020
Countdown to Israeli Action Against Iran
Published on July 31, 2020
Don’t Let Turks & Russians Carve up Libya
Published on July 28, 2020
The US Needs to Take Action to Deter Near-Peer Rivals in Space
Published on July 21, 2020
West Africa and U.S. Strategy
Published on June 24, 2020
Washington Needs to Act Fast on Libya, Before It’s Too Late
Published on June 15, 2020
Why Israel Is the Ideal Ally for This Moment
Published on May 27, 2020
Enhance US-Israel Cooperation Against Iranian Belligerence
Published on May 20, 2020
Bringing the Yemen Conflict to an End
Published on May 1, 2020
Iran’s Most Dangerous Virus Is Its Lying, Oppressive Regime
Published on April 30, 2020
A Fresh Start for Trump’s Middle East Peace Plan
Published on April 27, 2020
Change US Escalation Calculus with Iran
Published on April 22, 2020
Why the US Must Quit Negotiating with Iran
Published on April 9, 2020
America Must Have a ‘Regime Collapse’ Strategic Goal for Iran
Published on March 25, 2020
The Case For a Political Warfare Campaign Against Iran
Published on March 1, 2020
Avoiding a Nuclear Arms Race in the Middle East
Published on February 13, 2020
China is Making Middle East Moves
Published on February 10, 2020
China in the Eastern Med
Published on February 5, 2020
Hezbollah’s Missiles of Mass Destruction
Published on January 10, 2020
The Right Strategy For Iran Isn’t Regime Change. It’s Regime Collapse.
Published on January 8, 2020
President Trump Should Worry About Iran’s Military
Published on January 3, 2020
The US and Israel Should Agree on a Mutual Defense Pact
Published on December 16, 2019
Israel Needs US-Made Weapons to Contain Iran’s Aggression
Published on December 9, 2019
How Trump Should Maximize Pressure on Iran
Published on December 3, 2019
America and the Kurds
Published on December 3, 2019
New Signs Iran is Creeping Closer to Making a Nuclear Bomb
Published on November 12, 2019
Sen. Lindsey Graham & Michael Makovsky: US-Israel Mutual Defense Treaty Needed to Ben...
Published on November 12, 2019
Calls To Cut Aid To Israel Detrimental To U.S. Interests
Published on November 11, 2019
How UNIFIL Can Still Succeed in Lebanon
Published on October 29, 2019
Consequences of the US Withdrawal from Syria
Published on October 26, 2019
The Right Way Ahead After Trump’s Syria Mistake
Published on October 21, 2019
Contesting Iran’s Gray Zone Strategy
Published on October 18, 2019
Trump’s Sanctions on Iran Won’t Work Without Threat of Force
Published on September 16, 2019
Jordan and Israel Ties: A Need for Common Understanding Among Peoples
Published on September 16, 2019
How Iran’s Nuclear Breakout Easily Could Become a ‘Sneakout’
Published on September 12, 2019
Iran’s Nuclear Clock is Ticking Once Again. Here’s How to Stop It
Published on July 11, 2019
US has Given Lebanese Armed Forces a Pass with Hezbollah — Conditioning Aid is Necessary
Published on July 5, 2019
In Light of Iranian Aggression, the US Navy Must Grow in Size and Capability
Published on June 24, 2019
Helping Lebanon While Countering Hezbollah and Iran
Published on June 18, 2019
The Eastern Mediterranean Needs More US Warships
Published on June 4, 2019
Iran Puts Trump to the Test
Published on June 2, 2019
Greece: America’s New Key Strategic Partner
Published on May 23, 2019
Israel Needs Bipartisan Support
Published on May 17, 2019
UN Report on IDF Response to Hamas Are Misguided and Pose Serious Concerns
Published on March 29, 2019
US Should Sanction Hezbollah-Controlled Govt. to Counter Attack Tunnels in Lebanon
Published on March 21, 2019
How the US Can Work with Israel in Syria Without Putting More Boots on the Ground
Published on March 17, 2019
Hezbollah’s Tunnels Offer Sneak Peek at Looming Major Conflict with Israel
Published on February 25, 2019
Congress Should Be Wary of Funding the Lebanese Armed Forces
Published on February 19, 2019
Trump Shouldn’t Pull Out of Syria Right Now – Our President First Needs a Tougher ...
Published on February 1, 2019
US Must Begin Bolstering Regional Allies to Mitigate Fallout from Syria Withdrawal
Published on December 21, 2018
Iran’s Ballistic Missile Test Shows U.S. Defense of Middle East Allies Must Change. ...
Published on December 19, 2018
The United States Needs a Clear Strategy to Roll Back Iran
Published on December 3, 2018
Syria’s S-300 Gift From Russia
Published on November 21, 2018
Israel’s Next Northern War: Operational and Legal Challenges
Published on November 3, 2018
Beating Back Iranian Aggression by Supporting Israel
Published on September 25, 2018
Help Egypt Help Israel On Middle East Peace
Published on September 14, 2018
Preserve U.S. Interests in Syria by Backing the Kurds
Published on September 7, 2018
Human Shields and Other Tactics of Israel’s Enemies
Published on July 27, 2018
Helsinki Summit an Opportunity to Win Russia’s Support for Constraining Iran in Syri...
Published on July 15, 2018
Beyond Sanctions, How The U.S. Can Pressure Iran
Published on May 29, 2018
How the U.S. Should Wish Israel a Happy 70th Birthday
Published on May 8, 2018
It’s Time for Trump to Pull Out of the Iran Deal
Published on April 10, 2018
Congress is Overdue to Pass the Taylor Force Act
Published on March 4, 2018
One Way to Counter Iran’s Aggression? Change the Map of the Middle East
Published on December 25, 2017
US Must Bolster Its Presence In MidEast As ISIS Falls
Published on December 6, 2017
Passing the Taylor Force Act Will Mark a Vital Step in the War on Terror
Published on November 15, 2017
Balfour at 100
Published on November 2, 2017
North Korea Proved Allowing the Iran Deal to Collapse Could Lead to Proliferation
Published on September 27, 2017
The Terror-Fighting Burden on Emmanuel Macron: What President Trump Should Ask from the Fr...
Published on July 13, 2017
The Two Faces of Qatar, a Dubious Mideast Ally
Published on April 24, 2017
Five Ways for Trump to Put Tehran on Notice
Published on January 3, 2017
No Deal
Published on October 14, 2016
Columbia’s Alvaro Uribe a Paragon of Modern Leadership
Published on October 13, 2016
Iran’s Close Encounters With the U.S. Navy in the Persian Gulf
Published on September 21, 2016
It’s Not Just Israel’s Challenge
Published on September 6, 2016
Iran Needs to Take America Seriously Again
Published on July 14, 2016
What’s the Deal with Iran?
Published on July 8, 2016
Time to Seize the High Ground on Nuclear Weapons
Published on June 7, 2016
What Rhodes Revealed
Published on May 10, 2016
Time to Take Aim at Iranian Missiles
Published on April 12, 2016
The Costanza Approach
Published on April 1, 2016
The Dangerous Post-Deal World
Published on March 17, 2016
The Overlooked Iranian Missile Threat
Published on February 21, 2016
Who Really Betrayed the Syrians?
Published on November 19, 2015
Iranian Cheating
Published on October 26, 2015
What Next?
Published on October 5, 2015
Congress Must Reject Flawed Nuke Deal
Published on September 10, 2015
Blaming Israel First
Published on August 10, 2015
On the Consequences of the Deal
Published on July 27, 2015
Deal Brings Iran Closer to Obtaining Nuclear Weapons Capability
Published on July 24, 2015
‘A Perverse Consequence’
Published on May 25, 2015
Churchill on V-E Day
Published on May 7, 2015
Iran’s Cheating
Published on April 13, 2015
Appeasement in Our Time
Published on March 9, 2015
Martin Gilbert, 1936-2015
Published on February 5, 2015
Sending a Bunker-Busting Message to Iran
Published on April 8, 2014
The Obama Complex
Published on February 10, 2014
The Roots of Turkish Conduct: Understanding the Evolution of Turkish Policy
Published on December 18, 2013
‘Folly, Fatuity, and Futility’
Published on December 9, 2013
How to Negotiate with Iran
Published on October 29, 2013
Standing Alone
Published on October 14, 2013
Strategic Interests in the Region Should Guide U.S. Policy in Egypt
Published on August 27, 2013
Saudi Arabia Is a U.S. Ally, Not a Friend
Published on August 27, 2013
U.S. Must Mandate Zero Oil Exports for Iran
Published on July 25, 2013
Lessons from Syria for Iran
Published on June 6, 2013
Iran’s Shrewd Move
Published on February 22, 2013
The Economic Cost of a Nuclear Iran
Published on December 19, 2012
Would Redrawing Map Bring Mideast peace?
Published on December 13, 2012
Hot Debate Over Red Lines
Published on September 14, 2012
Iran Has No ‘Right’ To Enrich Uranium
Published on July 8, 2012
The Red Line for Iran
Published on March 2, 2012
The Real Oil Shock
Published on January 16, 2012
Obama’s Iran Policy Shifts to Containment
Published on December 11, 2011
Room for Growth
Published on May 16, 2011
Spring Trap
Published on March 31, 2011
The Middle East’s New Energy Giant
Published on February 24, 2011
Being Winston Churchill
Published on December 8, 2010
Iran, Oil, and the Carter Doctrine
Published on August 13, 2010
Stick Must Remain an Option to Stop Iran
Published on March 21, 2010
There Will Be Oil
Published on January 27, 2010
Over a Barrel
Published on May 29, 2009
Iraq’s Oil Progress
Published on August 25, 2008
The Model for McCain?
Published on February 14, 2008
Winston Churchill’s Complex Zionist Evolution
Published on October 31, 2007
Protecting Iraq’s Oil
Published on August 16, 2007
Oil’s Not Well in Iraq
Published on February 19, 2007